Harvard Referencing Style Examples: What is Fake News and How to Recognize It?

Students search for Harvard referencing style examples when they need to write an essay using Harvard style. When a person must introduce a research paper, it will be necessary to reference the given facts using the required format. It is essential to introduce an annotated bibliography to avoid blame for plagiarism. It is especially important for a person who uses a citation or paraphrased information. Such an assignment demands much attention because a student must not forget Arial 12, double space, 1-inch margins, left-aligned text presentation, and specific word order in the reference section. Moreover, a teacher might ask students to convert the paper from Word to PDF. A writing style is a system. One uses it to introduce the cited sources for the sake of a paper’s uniqueness. The sample below can show a student the basics of Harvard style.

Harvard Citation Example: What Is Fake News and How to Recognize It?

fake news

Information is power. People got used to learning the news daily. They watch TV, listen to the radio, surf the Internet, and scroll stories on social media platforms. Unfortunately, many people do not differentiate between fake and real news. They trust everything they read on their digital devices or see on TV. They do not see the point of checking anything. That is why it is so easy to manipulate people with the help of “fake news”. This term was first used in 1890 to determine sensations that had nothing to do with the truth. Today, it is harder to find the difference between lies and truth, but eight simple rules can help the audience recognize hoaxes and propaganda.

To begin with, one should define the term “fake news”. According to Wikipedia, it is misleading data that is introduced like news to the public. The encyclopedia identifies six types of fake news. The first one is clickbait. Influences on YouTube, Facebook, LinkedIn, Twitter, and other social platforms create false stories to attract more visitors and subscribers. The second one is called propaganda. Policy always involves intrigues and dirty tricks. That is why many periodicals post fake news about politicians to ruin or spot their reputation and provoke a scandal. The third type is a parody. Not all news aims to humiliate or mislead the audience. Sometimes, its job is to entertain. Comics use this type to turn the truth into a comedy by altering reality and fact for the sake of fun. The fourth type is sloppy journalism. This fake occurs when journalists and publishers hurry up to introduce a sensation and do not check the source and, unwillingly, supply their readers with fakes. The fifth type is misleading headings when the title of the article does not correspond to its content or reflects the opposite facts. The last one is biased news. These are stories that support the viewpoint of the author. They are not backed up and do not provide the required objectiveness.

Tired of all the guides and never-ending instructions?

Critics recommend not using the term “fake news” in every situation. The world uses “fake information” instead. The first term is usually used in political cases. The news is something official. That is why when one sees false stories on Facebook or Twitter, it will be fake information. If a person spots Barack Obama, Vladimir Putin, or Queen Elizabeth on a title page with the text that announces lies, it will be “fake news”. Fake news is the best method that helps to boost the activity of subscribers and spread rumors quickly. Regarding human psychology and thinking peculiarities, people want to see something impressive and striking. When the news becomes partially true, people start doubting everything they read and hear. According to Science Direct, fake news influences the results of a president’s election, creates social problems, and oppresses the truth. Only 19 respondents out of 442 participants do not regard fake news as a problem. That is why students often fail to write a Harvard referencing example. The introduced literature often turns out to be fake, and the written paper with the list of sources becomes unreliable, and the whole essay loses its credibility. That is why students must be careful when selecting material for their academic research.

How to differentiate between fakes and truth? First off, a person should consider the source. A credible source is recognizable. Students should select websites of reputable educational institutions, organizations, and companies. For example, The New York Times, Purdue Owl, The UNO, The WHO, and others. Secondly, the heading must not be screaming. The more CapsLocked letters and exclamation marks the article has, the more chances one has to get fake news. Third, students must compare the news with other sources. If other websites speak about the same topic and provide the same information, this source will fit. Afterward, one also should read between the lines. Fifth, it is necessary to analyze the introduced facts. One should make sure that the article does not include satire, irony, and jokes. The next task is to analyze the impact of the article on a reader. It should be informative, not convincing. Reliable sources are always unbiased. A student can ask experts to check information and verify or disprove it. Legitimacy is the thing one needs to reach in writing. Finally, a selected article or book should provide referencing to reputable sources.

A long time ago, people took the media literally. Today, everyone can create media, like, and share it. It is not a problem to comment on it. A person can defend and attack information. Moreover, news has become individualized today. When people log in, social media will introduce several posts and articles to meet the requirements of the user. For example, a girl is interested in computers. Facebook, Google, and YouTube will introduce videos and posts about new laptops, updates, operational systems, and other related things. The number and frequency of faked information and news rise daily. That is why teachers and educators try to assign tasks that let students develop and improve their critical thinking. Many assignments and essay examples are devoted to critical thinking and the ability to recognize lies and truth.

So, fake news exists to manipulate people. Influencers create it to get more subscribers, influence the results of electoral campaigns, or tarnish someone’s reputation. Another purpose of fake information is to entertain and trick a person. That is why one should be ready to analyze every cited source. A research paper must not be based on unreliable literature. Otherwise, a student will fail to convey the message and support it with vivid and convincing facts.


  1. Austin Community College (2019). LibGuides: Fake News and Alternative Facts: Finding Accurate News: Why is Fake News Harmful? [online] Austincc.edu. Available at: https://researchguides.austincc.edu/c.php?g=612891&p=4258046.
  2. Kanoh, H. (2018). Why do people believe in fake news over the Internet? An understanding from the perspective of existence of the habit of eating and drinking. Procedia Computer Science, 126, pp.1704–1709.
  3. TheWrap. (2021). Famous People Who Were Reported Dead… But Weren’t (Photos). [online] Available at: https://www.thewrap.com/celebrity-death-hoax-jack-black-taylor-swift-drake-bob-dylan/.
  4. Uvic.ca. (2021). LibGuides: Fake News: Consequences of Fake News. [online] Available at: https://libguides.uvic.ca/c.php?g=701103&p=5174732.
  5. University of Michigan (2018). Research Guides: “Fake News,” Lies and Propaganda: How to Sort Fact from Fiction: What is “Fake News”? [online] Umich.edu. Available at: https://guides.lib.umich.edu/fakenews.
  6. Webwise (2018). Explained: What is Fake news? | Social Media and Filter Bubbles. [online] Webwise.ie. Available at: https://www.webwise.ie/teachers/what-is-fake-news/.
  7. Wikipedia Contributors (2018). Fake news. [online] Wikipedia. Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fake_news.

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