A deductive essay is a specific type of writing that supposes the logical development of clues and facts to a particular conclusion about the object. There are three main elements of the deductive reasoning to perform a deductive essay example: premise, evidence, and conclusion. A premise is a common fact or a set of certain circumstances that becomes a basis for further reasoning. The evidence is a piece of particular information or proof that the writer has to correlate with premises. Finally, a conclusion is a logical balance between the premise and the evidence or final analysis of the situation counting all available information. An example of a simple logical chain is the following: as all flowers are plants (premise) and roses are flowers (evidence), then roses are plants (conclusion).
Writing a deductive essay demands some clearness and specificity on the logical path. Nevertheless, people use deductive reasoning in everyday life to make assumptions and conclusions about many things they encounter. It is essential to keep a focus on the chain between premises, evidence, and appropriate conclusion for academic writing. In this regard, it is necessary to state the premise and fundamental ideas that are the basis for further reasoning. Pieces of evidence could be represented by scientific findings or personal observations that prove the writer’s presumption. There can be more than one premise or evidence for the argument, but the writer should clearly connect them to formulate a distinct conclusion. Therefore, the conclusion is the most probable logical inference based on the evidence of the initial premise. Deductive reasoning is a frequent pattern of detective stories or articles in life-sciences. Simultaneously, a deductive essay is an excellent approach to evaluating knowledge in many disciplines, as it demands a robust analysis of the theme. There is an example of the deductive essay.
Medical progress aims to protect a growing number of people from diverse diseases and harmful agents that influence human lives. Today, the most efficient way to decrease the impact of many infectious diseases is vaccination or immunization. This method implicates the administration of specific antigens for stimulating the immune system to develop a fast immune reaction for further meeting these pathogens. Vaccines can induce significant protection against many viral and bacterial infections. Specific material used for immunization frequently contains vivid attenuated or inactivated pathogens, purified native or artificial antigens of viruses or bacteria, preservatives, and excipients like stabilizers and adjuvants. According to the World Health Organization, timely vaccination saves 2-3 million children lives annually. International health authorities consider vaccines as the public good that averts millions of deaths worldwide. However, there is a growing number of people who refuse to vaccinate their children because of the unsafety and adverse effects of vaccines. Almost 200 years of immunization history gathered different pieces of evidence about controversial helpfulness of vaccines for saving the health of human populations.
Scientists assert that global immunization can eradicate some infectious agents in the natural environment. The most known is an example of a successful fight with the pathogen that causes smallpox, which is fatal in 30% cases. Due to the global vaccination program, the last natural case of this disease was in Somalia in 1977. The WHO declared that smallpox was eradicated all over the world in 1980 and no longer occurs naturally. Only two special laboratories in the world obtain remaining stocks of the variola virus that causes smallpox. There is no treatment for smallpox, and only timely immunization can prevent the development of disease if it occurs in the laboratory or from unknown places. The next eradicated diseases could be polio and measles, but small outbreaks of these diseases occur in different regions with a high level of refusing immunization.
Vaccination through the communities can protect even unimmunized people and eliminate some diseases. Thus, total immunization of 95 % members of a population in a particular region can prevent disease in that 5% of people who cannot achieve vaccines due to their health conditions. In this regard, some regions eliminated measles, mumps, and rubella by using multivalent MMR vaccines. However, local elimination of polio or other infections cannot prevent an external reintroduction of pathogens from unvaccinated travelers. Conversely, collective immunity is inefficient when a part of society refuses to vaccinate themselves or their children. Such actions create a natural pool for spreading infection and frequently lead to the outbreaks even among vaccinated adults. Many diseases are considered to be light childhood illnesses, but they are much more severe for adults and can cause different complications. In this regard, low compliance with the immunization plan leads to an increased risk for society and particular personalities.
Frequently parents refuse to vaccinate children because of the potential adverse effect of vaccines that appears more dangerous than the disease consequences themselves. Any vaccination means contaminating the organism with external pathogens and chemical substances that cause an immune reaction. In most cases, the first reaction is typical, local and less harmful, like redness or swelling in the injection site. Common side effects also may include fever, shivering, fatigue, or headache. All these symptoms are nonspecific reactions of the immune system on meeting new antigen besides hundreds of antigens it meets every day. However, in rare cases, vaccines can cause a severe allergic reaction, anaphylactic shock. This state is dangerous and life-threatening, and it is one of the contraindications for further usage of specific vaccines for such individuals. Simultaneously, severe side effects are rare, unpredictable, and depend on individual health grounds of particular patients. Medical authorities and manufacturers of vaccines register every adverse case for further investigation and possible enhancement of the vaccine.
Another essential reason to refuse vaccines is their components that are considered harmful. Frequently, material for immunization contains aluminum salts, such as adjuvants, formaldehyde, and thimerosal as additives or preservatives. American health authorities as Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) note that aluminum adjuvant vaccines demonstrated their safety for more than 70 years of immunization. Thimerosal, which is used as a preservative in multi-dose vials of vaccines, contains low doses of ethyl mercury that is easily eliminated from the human body. Small doses of formaldehyde are used for inactivation of viruses and detoxification of bacterial toxins in some types of vaccines for a long time. Conversely, only licensed vaccines undergo rigorous reviews and clinical trials before considering safe and available to use. Inappropriate storage and appliance of vaccines are much more harmful than their components.
Modern medicine is evidence-based, and the benefits and risks of vaccination can also be estimated in many scientific investigations. However, the only reliable evidence about vaccination with the blind comparison of two groups of vaccinated and unvaccinated patients is hard to perform correctly. Hence, the scientific base of immunization is mostly the long live observation of possible adverse effects of the most researched vaccines. As usual, there is no evidence of complete safety or unsafety of particular popular vaccines. In this regard, rare severe cases of adverse vaccine consequences are only statistical errors for a numerous population. However, these few cases are also lives of certain people, and none wants to become a unique regrettable case among millions of saved lives.
In conclusion, a medical breakthrough like vaccination appeared to become public good behind individual problems. Many vaccines proved their efficacy for decades of years in different regions and countries all over the world. Global immunization allowed eradicating in full measure smallpox in natural conditions. Effective and comprehensive vaccination eliminated some dangerous diseases in particular areas of the world. High levels of immunization within a specific population create collective immunity that protects unvaccinated people. Vaccination can prevent many infectious diseases or weaken their complications. In this regard, immunization is a public good that saves many lives every year. Conversely, misuse of vaccines, improper storage, or using doubtful vaccines that include high levels of harmful components can lead to severe adverse reactions. Moreover, individual sensitivity to the compounds of even licensed vaccines can cause critical damages or death after vaccination. Hence, public good may be dangerous for particular individuals in rare cases. Therefore, vaccination is more likely a significant medical benefit and public advantage that permanently develops to cover present individual disadvantages.
This essay sample is more complicated than the illustration of deductive reasoning provided in the description of the deductive essays. Thus, the particular essay consists of three main parts: introduction, body paragraphs, and conclusion. The introduction contains the background of the issue and two basic premises about vaccination. The first premise is that using vaccines is a public good that saves millions of lives, and the second is that immunization is an unsafe and dangerous practice. The thesis states that there is evidence of the controversial nature of vaccination. Further, the body paragraphs describe different sub-points of the premises and scientific evidence that vaccination causes eradication and crucial elimination of serious illnesses. Conversely, the potentially harmful effect of vaccines is also described in separate paragraphs with the available evidence base. The final part of the essay contains the general conclusion about the issue that vaccination is not definitively good or bad for people. Moreover, the conclusion briefly restates and summarizes the information mentioned in body paragraphs.
Hope that this sample will be a helpful illustration for further deductive essay writing on different topics. The provided deductive essay sample includes three main elements of deductive writing: premise, evidence, and conclusion. Furthermore, these elements are logically involved in the typical essay structure of introduction, body, and conclusion. The topic sentence of each body paragraph describes the problem that will be investigated. Clear and accurate pieces of evidence support all premises that allow formulating appropriate inference. Simultaneously, suitable in-text citations of reliable sources make evidence more reasonable. The conclusion is based on the balancing of premises and used evidence, and it does not contain new information. Using several premises and specific pieces of evidence allows performing a comprehensive analysis of one topic. Moreover, deductive reasoning helps to create a logical chain to demonstrate the full understanding of the issue by the writer.
Bulletin of the World Health Organization. (2011, March 04). Vaccination greatly reduces disease, disability, death and inequity worldwide. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/bulletin/volumes/86/2/07-040089/en/
CDC. (2017). Vaccine Safety. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/vaccinesafety/index.html
NHS. (2016). How vaccination saves lives. Retrieved from https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/vaccinations/vaccination-saves-lives/
U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2018). Vaccines. Retrieved from https://www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/vaccines/default.htm