If you are looking for a topic on which to write your drug abuse essay and the consequences of drugs, then review the topics below:
An article published in PsychologyToday.com in 2009 stresses personality as a powerful factor that helps answer why some are prone to abusing drugs and becoming addicted while others aren’t. According to the author, an addictive personality trait, owned by about 10-15% of people, makes them prone to becoming addicts. However, according to an article published four years earlier in MedicalNewsToday.com, among people with similar personality traits some are known to develop an addiction while others aren’t quite as prone. The article accounts for this phenomenon by claiming that favourable environmental and cultural conditions can help offset addictive personality traits.
There is a complex interplay of societal, community, peer, family and individual factors accounting for negative behaviour such as substance abuse, according to the United Nations Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention (2000). Globally, it has been observed that a member of a family with a history of drug abuse and dependence is more prone to drug abuse. This finding is corroborated in many studies, such as Wu et al. (1996), Wester-meyer and Neider (1994) and Madianos et al. (1995).
In other studies, Jauhar and Watson (1995), and Curran et al have found the same pattern to occur with respect to alcohol abuse and dependence. Bierut, Dinwiddie, and Regleiter (1998) have established the significant influence of genetics in alcohol dependence, while Tsuang et al. (1996) have established the same causal link between genes and drug dependence. Thus, family environment is instrumental, both in promoting drug abuse and dependence and in providing protection from it. In this section, a few of these factors have been reviewed. The limitations concomitant with the chosen research design render a large number of these findings as purely correlative rather than causal. Below are several factors associated with family environment.
Physical and sexual abuse in childhood: despite its design limitations, relating either to use of clinical samples or retrospective designs, research suggests that childhood abuse appears as a risk factor with regard to substance abuse. Thus, risk of alcohol abuse in adulthood is enhanced in women subjected to physical or sexual abuse in childhood, as delineated in studies done by Langeland and Hartgers (1998) and Rice et al. (2001). Curiously, with regard to males research points to contradictory evidence; perusal of studies done by Galaif et al. (2001) and Langeland and Hartgers (1998) shows this contrast. Jarvis, Copeland and Walton (1998) go a step further, establishing direct correlation between adolescent drug abuse among women and childhood sexual abuse, accompanied by the extrapolation that such drug use could be in the form of self-medication aimed at reducing emotional pain induced via childhood abuse.
Family practices and attitudes relating to substance abuse: Lane et al (2001) stressed the importance of peer influences leading to substance use among youth; however, one cannot neglect the significance of family practices and attitudes. The predominance of parental influence over that of peers is especially true in Hispanic/Latino youth, as established by Coombs, Paulson, and Richardson (1991). The frequency of youth substance use is greatly influenced by use of substances by family members and family members’ attitude with regard to it. For instance, Lane et al (2001) have referred to a household survey on substance use done in 1997 that revealed the lowest incidence of substance use among youth in the age group of 12-17 years. Said youth were said to perceive their parents as being “very upset” with binge drinking, cigarettes and marijuana. Swaim, Nemeth, and Oetting (1995) have highlighted a similar reduction in alcohol use among girls in Hungary, owing to strong family sanctions against such substance abuse. Boyle et al. (2001) have established that drug use by an older sibling is a greater influence than parental drug use in leading to youth substance abuse.
Problematic relations with family members and partners: the risk of substance abuse has been found to increase in direct proportion to problematic relations with family members and partners. Lane et al (2001) have brought attention to the fact that youth who had several weekly arguments with their parents showed a greater tendency to have used marijuana during the previous year than others who had one argument a week or month, as revealed by a national household survey done. Studies have established that the direct correlation between problematic relations with family members and drug abuse by adolescents manifests internationally. Women in Zagreb were more prone to alcoholism due to problematic relations with family members and partners. Other studies have shown how more than 75 of 100 Scottish males admitted for alcohol abuse blamed failed marriages and family neglect on their alcoholism.
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