If you need facts to help you write a quantitative policy analysis for education, health, or any other topic, consider the ten facts below:
- Literature has suggested that unstable family situations such as poor parents’ marital relationship may have adverse effects on the growth of the children, with the adolescent stage showing critical signs of such influence. Concerns such as the incarceration or marital status of the parents tend to affect the performance of adolescent children. Adolescents tend to express the resultant stress in different ways, with most various psychological disorders. Mental health is considered to be among the leading concerns that may be associated to the instability of parental input, especially in the minority communities. However, due to a dearth of study on this topic there is a need to investigate this idea further.
- Access to clean drinking water is a basic human right. The United Nations has stated that a human right is a universal and indivisible standard for equality and the illegality of discrimination. The United Nations also hosted their Convention on the Non-Navigational Uses of International Watercourses, which dictates international standards for the use and care of international watercourses, with freshwater becoming a concern by the 1990s. As far as environmental freshwater law is concerned, before these international movements existed only the Customary International Law of International Waters as a method of legitimizing water claims for those nations which were forced to share waters. To date there have been over 3,700 international water agreements. The General Assembly of the United Nations’ Convention on the Non-Navigational Uses of International Watercourses states in Article 5 that the use of international watercourse must be done so in a manner which can be considered reasonable and equitable to each nation.
- When contracts exist between two or more parties on an international scale, and conflict emerges, revisions to international law allow for heightened party autonomy in the selection of which rules of law are applied to the conflict, or in some cases to individual components of the conflict. This provides parties with the freedom to choose lower level litigation or higher, international litigation whereby governments get involved. It is the Regulations from Rome I which stipulate that parties have the freedom to select which applicable law they use, something which is argued to be one of the cornerstones to the conflict of law for contractual obligations. This idea is one which is perpetuated among EU contract law, English Traditional Rules, and the Hague Principles on Choice of Law in International Contracts.
- The Hague Principles on Choice of Law in International Contracts which apply to party autonomy in the selection of law influences international contracts wherein each of the parties involved are acting in their given profession, and only to this area and not to consumer contracts or employment contracts. Under this rule, contracts are considered international unless all parties have their establishment inside of the same state, or where the relationships which connect the parties are all connected within one state. Under these revised principles the parties are able to choose the law which is applicable to their entire contract or to just a part of it. They can also select different laws for various components to their contract. This choice is not set in stone such that parties can opt at any time during the legal proceedings to modify or change their decision.
- Article 3 of The Hague Principles on Choice of Law in International Contracts pertains directly to the rules of law and it stipulates that the law selected by the parties can be rules of law which are accepted by international law, by supranational law, or by regional law so long as the laws are neutral and balanced. In essence, this revision to the Hague Rules of law give parties the freedom to avoid things such as federal governance, and instead handle local matters at regional levels, or vice versa.
- Article 7 of the same UN Convention contains the “No-Harm Rule” which requires all nations who utilize international watercourses to thwart harm to other nations who use the same watercourses through all “appropriate measures”. However, many nations proceed to dictate fairness, creating international vendettas which revert to Customary International Law. To address the application of underground water, the United Nations fashioned a resolution in 1994 of the International Law Association calling for further studies on how to govern groundwater. Taking the further research and expounding upon the international water laws currently in place, allowing governments to better fulfill their roles is a vital issue.
- International Freshwater and Watercourse Law are two very closely related facets of Environmental Law, whose birth has encouraged a rapid growth among other subsections of Environmental Law. While relatively new in regards to concerns such as water pollution, international freshwater law is still in infantile stages, desperately in need of revision and growth. While the United Nations Convention on the Non-Navigational Uses of International Watercourses was a grand step initiative in dictating international standards for the use and care of international watercourses, Freshwater did not become an international concern until the mid-1990s. It was then that navigation of freshwater was addressed, following by non-navigational use of rivers. However, the conflict now arises from the lack of international allocation of freshwater resources.
- The number of international treaties pertaining to freshwater regulation have increased rapidly in number. Unfortunately the treaties in question pertain to developed countries. Even so, these treaties often result in no action or resolutions. Because of pollution, use, and distribution, freshwater resources and rivers are often at the height of political conflicts. The Colorado River, Rio Grande, Parana, Rhine, Nile, and Jordan rivers are all examples of how conflict can turn to treaties, military actions, and the desperate need for improved international freshwater law.
- As the lines between political and environmental issues are continually blurred, the agenda for international freshwater and watercourse law has altered significantly each decade since inception with the introduction of other legal breakthroughs. Environmental law was subject to business law during the 1980s, incorporating human rights law and the rights of women. Deciding how best to rectify the shortage of fresh drinking water, while providing means for better international allocation has produced many options, however each with room for negotiations.
- Interventions to tackle communicable diseases are already in place through organizations such as WHO and the CDC which offer travel-specific information on how to prevent spreading your illness, how to prevent yourself from becoming ill, and recommendations on how to treat your illness. While this does not stop travel or the spread of disease in and of itself, it is a small step. Recommendations for this are difficult and of course, as with all things, begin with education. By first providing information on communicable disease, the risk of spreading such disease while traveling, and on public health methods for remaining healthy, individuals can be educated about topics which can mitigate the risk of spreading diseases.
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