A man has always been plagued with questions about inherited traits, diseases and biological phenomena before the study of sciences was introduced in ancient Egypt. In more recent times, questions such as how the Zika virus developed, the origins of Ebola and tracing the human species to the earliest roots have dominated among the scientific discussions. And now, answering these questions and finding scientific direction in the midst of chaos has been made easy by the leaps and bounds made in the field of computational genomics. Which leads us to the question; what is computational genomics?
Before writing an essay on the topic of computational genomics, it is essential to understand its definition and scientific application. Therefore, this article will focus on covering computational genomics using facts, which can also be applied in your essay writing task. Computational genomics, otherwise known as computational genetics, stands for the usage of computational and statistical analysis for dissevering biology from genome sequences and other related data. This data in combination with statistical approaches allows scientists understand the function of genes and how species’s DNA controls its entire population.
10 Important Facts on Computational Genomics
- There are just two basic types of cells. Basic biology provides the foundation for the study of genetics and in terms of cell biology, the two types of basic cell types are: the eukaryotic cell, which has no nuclei and the prokaryotic cell, which consists of nuclei. Although both cell types are fundamentally similar in terms of molecular machinery, eukaryotic cells are complex multicellular organisms like fungi, while prokaryotic cells are unicellular organisms such as bacteria.
- Cells are storage devices for genetic information. The genetic material used by cells is formed by molecules of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). These molecules have sequential structure, which makes them function just like the average computer storage device. The mechanism for reading this information is one of the core components of all living things and is highly similar in all types of cells. This mechanism is formed by a complex of enzymes, specified by the particular instructions it must read.
- Gregor Mendel is credited with starting the computation genomics quest to understand plant and animal biology. The first major step in the field of genomics was taken by Gregor Mendel in 1859, when he discovered how genetic information is stored. The second major step was made in New York, when Oswald Avery and a group of biologists discovered that nucleic acid contains these sequences of information.
- A Genome is formed in chromosomes by DNA. A genome is the set of all DNA contained in a cell and this genome is formed by one or multiple stretches of DNA coupled together in a chromosome. Chromosomes can be linear or circular but one thing remains constant – when a cell divides, chromosomes are replicated in exactly the same structure as found in their parent cell.
- The first DNA sequence was accomplished in 1977. The first DNA sequencing task was set in 1977 but the first complete DNA sequence for an organism was encoded in 1995 and it was the DNA of the Haemophilus Influenza bacterium. The first animal to have its genome completely sequenced was a fruit fly. It was done by Celera Genomics in 2000. The first crop plant to have its DNA sequenced is rice; it happened in 2004. In 2002, the mouse became the first mammal to have its genome sequenced completely by scientists.
- James Watson is the first human to have his genome sequenced. The 21st century saw an increased interest to the computational genomics and the race to sequence the human DNA intensified in 2000. The first successful step was completing the haplotype map of the human genome in 2005. The second milestone was the completed haploid genomic sequencing of James Watson’s genome in 2007. The first diploid human genome to be sequenced was that of Craig Venter in 2007.
- The first synthetic genome was recreated in 2008. The Craig Venter group that successfully sequenced the first human diploid genome also succeeded in the complete chemical synthesizing, assembly and cloning of the Mycoplasma Genitalium bacteria’s genome. This was a key step towards creating a complete organism. Consequently, Craig Venter was named among the Time-100 most influential persons on earth.
- Cancer genomes were analyzed in 2009. In 2009, the field of computational genomics recorded a milestone in understanding and managing debilitating diseases with the complete analysis of the cancer genome. This comprehensive analysis successfully analyzed the genomes of lung cancer and malignant melanoma. This success led to the launch of the UK10K program which intends to computationally compare the genomes of 4,000 healthy individuals against 6,000 sick individuals.
- A genome browser is a place where you can search for completely analyzed sequences exits. With the hope of building an organized platform for the computational genomics community, the UCSC genome browser was built. It allows reputable sources submit established genomic sequence results and provides the public with access to check these analyses. The browser has the URL www.genome.ucsc.edu. This platform was built by the University of California, Santa Cruz
- Mathematics plays a key role in the field of computational genomics. Pursuing a profession in computational genomics is an admirable venture, which requires the student to have a high level of mathematical and statistical knowledge to succeed. Scientist in this field constantly makes use of data analytics software applications such as Matlab to compute information. This means some love to technical applications and data analytics is recommended.
Here we come to the end of some important facts we believe will serve you in good stead if writing a compare and contrast essay on computational genomics is given to you as an assignment. These facts are just a tip of the iceberg as other complimentary articles covering topics such as tips for a compare and contrast essay guide on computational genomics coupled with 20 compare and contrast essay topics on computational genomics will make writing excellently on this subject an easy task.
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